Enzyme immunoassay is a laboratory immunological method for the qualitative or quantitative determination of various compounds, macromolecules, viruses, etc., which is based on a specific antigen-antibody reaction. Identification of the resulting complex is carried out using the enzyme as a label for recording the signal. The ELISA analysis is based on identifying not the infection itself, but its waste products - white markers.
The essence of the enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) is to identify specific (individual for each microorganism) antibodies. Antibodies (immunoglobulins, Ig) are specific protein defenders produced by leuсocytes (white blood cells) in response to the appearance in the body of foreign genetic material (viruses, bacteria, protozoa). In other words, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) does not show the fact of the presence of an infectious agent (infection) in the body, but the state of immunity to this infectious agent, that is, based on the ELISA data, one can only indirectly (indirectly) judge the presence / absence of an infectious agent viruses, bacteria, protozoa) in response to the immune (protective) system of the body. Depending on the statute of limitation of the existence in the human body of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, antibodies of classes A, M, G (IgA, IgM, IgG) are produced.
Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) in gynecology is widely used to diagnose mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis, trichomoniasis, gardnerelleza, gonorrhea, TORCH infections (toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection and herpes).